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Geometry Playground Spatial Language Coding Manual


Description: This audio and video coding scheme was developed to assess the spatial reasoning language used by adults and children while exploring interactive geometry exhibits at the Exploratorium, a science center in San Francisco, CA (. The scheme identifies spatial language utterances, measures their duration, and categorizes them into three levels: Static, Dynamic and Causal (National Research Council, 2006). The study coded video of 120 adult-child dyads, analyzing adults’ and children’s speech separately. The scheme resulted in good to excellent levels of inter-rater agreement, with Cohen’s Kappa statistics of .76 for adults and .72 for children (Fleiss, Levin, & Paik, 2004).

The full research study and results are described here:
Dancu, T. Gutwill, J., & Sindorf, L. (In press). Comparing The Visitor Experience At Immersive And Tabletop Exhibits. Curator, 58(4).

Population: Adults and/or Children (the study used Adult and Child pairings)


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Casasola, M., Bhagwat, J., & Burke, A. S. (2009). Learning to form a spatial category of tight-fit relations: how experience with a label can give a boost. Developmental Psychology, 45, 711-723.

Dancu, T., Gutwill, G., & Sindorf, L. (2015). Comparing the Visitor Experience At Immersive and Tabletop Exhibits. Curator, 58(4).

Fleiss, J. L., Levin, B., & Paik, M. C. (2004). The Measurement of Interrater Agreement Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions, Third Edition (pp. 598-626). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Serra, M. (2003). Discovering geometry: An investigative approach. Emeryville, CA: Key Curriculum Press.

Tartre, L. (1990). Spatial Orientation Skill and Mathematical Problem Solving. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(3), 216-229. (n.d.). Roget’s 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition. Retrieved May 15, 2010, from website:

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Geometry Playground Spatial Language Coding Manual