Description: This audio and video coding scheme was developed to assess the spatial reasoning language used by adults and children while exploring interactive geometry exhibits at the Exploratorium, a science center in San Francisco, CA (. The scheme identifies spatial language utterances, measures their duration, and categorizes them into three levels: Static, Dynamic and Causal (National Research Council, 2006). The study coded video of 120 adult-child dyads, analyzing adults’ and children’s speech separately. The scheme resulted in good to excellent levels of inter-rater agreement, with Cohen’s Kappa statistics of .76 for adults and .72 for children (Fleiss, Levin, & Paik, 2004).
The full research study and results are described here:
|Population: Adults and/or Children (the study used Adult and Child pairings)|
Bloom, L., & Capatides, J. B. (1987). Sources of Meaning in the Acquisition of Complex Syntax: The Sample Case of Causality. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 43, 112-128.
Callanan, M. A., Shrager, J., & Moore, J. L. (1995). Parent-child collaborative explanations: Methods of identification and analysis. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 4(1), 105-129.
Casasola, M., Bhagwat, J., & Burke, A. S. (2009). Learning to form a spatial category of tight-fit relations: how experience with a label can give a boost. Developmental Psychology, 45, 711-723.
Dancu, T., Gutwill, G., & Sindorf, L. (2015). Comparing the Visitor Experience At Immersive and Tabletop Exhibits. Curator, 58(4).
Fleiss, J. L., Levin, B., & Paik, M. C. (2004). The Measurement of Interrater Agreement Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions, Third Edition (pp. 598-626). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Gentner, D. & Christie, S. (2008). Relational language supports relational cognition in humans and apes: A response to Penn, Holyoak & Povinelli. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 137-183.
Linn, M. C., & Petersen, A. C. (1985). Emergence and Characterization of Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Meta-Analysis. Child Development, 56(6), 1479-1498.
National Research Council. (2006). Learning to Think Spatially: GIS as a Support System in the K-12 Curriculum. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Pruden, Levine, S., & Huttenlocher, J. (2011). Children’s spatial thinking: Does talk about the spatial world matter? Developmental Science, 14(6), 1417-1430.
Serra, M. (2003). Discovering geometry: An investigative approach. Emeryville, CA: Key Curriculum Press.
Tartre, L. (1990). Spatial Orientation Skill and Mathematical Problem Solving. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(3), 216-229.
Thesaurus.com (n.d.). Roget’s 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition. Retrieved May 15, 2010, from Thesaurus.com website: http://www.thesaurus.com