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Test of Spatial Ability (TOSA)


Description: This is a match-to-sample spatial assembly task requiring participants to complete 12 trials where they copy a target arrangement of geometric shapes (2-D trials) or interlocking blocks (3-D trials).  The test assesses spatial skills in 3-year-olds to capture individual differences and study their relationship to early mathematics.  Early results suggest that the task works well in predicting later spatial skills at ages 4 and 5.  There are concerns with ceiling effects when the test is used with 48 months or older.  Piloting with children 30-months-old indicates that it can be administered to younger children, although there is still significant work necessary to verify the reliability and validity of the test for younger ages.  The test shows significant SES effects in this age range, but no significant sex differences have been observed to date.
Population: 3-6 year olds


Verdine, B. N., Golinkoff, R. M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Newcombe, N. S., Filipowicz, A. T., & Chang, A. (2013). Deconstructing building blocks: Preschoolers’ spatial assembly performance relates to early mathematics skills. Child Development. [DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12165]

Verdine, B. N., Irwin, C., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (in press). Spatial skill and executive function predict to 4-year-olds’ math skill. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Test Location: Please email Brian Verdine: brian.verdine [at] gmail [dot] com or Roberta Golinkoff: roberta [at] udel [dot] edu